Chess is a skill-based strategic board game for two players. It’s played on a checkered board with each player starting with 16 pieces that are maneuvered around the board with the objective of capturing the other player’s pieces. Of course, there are precise rules involved dictating where you can move and the hierarchy of the pieces. The object of the game is to put the other player’s king under at attack that can’t be escaped from. The history of chess extends as far back as 1,500 years and is a game based on careful observation, strategizing and forethought; therefore, the psychology of chess has become an interesting topic of study that can illuminate certain human psychological processes.
Memory and Visualization
The game of chess boasts a long and rich legacy. It’s known as an intellectual game with cognitive benefits, and the mastery of the game reflects the ability of individuals to successfully navigate their way through the daily tasks and challenges of life.
Psychologists like Christopher Chabris claim that the game of chess is the ideal arena for studying psychological processes such as expertise, analysis, problem-solving, memory and visualization. According to Chabris, the game of chess highlights how visualization and research relates to problem-solving like few other games. Observing how skilled chess players navigate in a variety of situations illuminates the psychological processes that take place with perception, memory, visualization, and expected and unexpected outcomes. Players have to base their moves on what they foresee will happen as a result. They also need to remember former moves and how each move with affect the next.
The Chunking Theory
Studies on thought and choice in the game of chess have proposed that expert players are highly adept at quickly identifying the problem in a position and constructing a solution.
The seminal work of Herbert Simon and William Chase birthed ‘the chunking theory’. The chunking theory asserts that strength in the game of chess is based largely on the player’s ability to identify the defining features in a position and to be able to do so quickly. The theory proposed that the individual features are stored in chunks acting as access points along the road to semantic long-term memory.
According to the chunking theory, it is perception that facilitates the recognition of chunks of information on the board based on the position of the pieces. The piece positions and patterns on the board are then mapped out on the mind which recognizes patterns and possible moves. The activation of the mind’s recognition mechanisms are engaged while the player perceives and visualizes expectations of a piece’s position and move.
Decades after the chunking theory arrived, the template theory was born. The template theory was based on memory research and filled certain gaps within the chunking theory. Template theory assigns more importance to the role of memory as masters of chess can simultaneously recall positions and their outcomes that were in place only briefly, applying the lessons learned from former moves to present and future ones.
The template theory took the chunking theory one step further to link the chunks to additional data like positions, plans, tactical maneuvers, and long-term motives: all aspects of long-term memory. Based on this assumption, common chunks would evolve into complex structures, known as data templates. The templates contain slots into which game variables are encoded. Templates were thought to house data regarding 10 pieces and their positions. This stored information in the mind is thought to need updates and reminders from the external world to maintain the memories. It is thought that a grandmaster chess player has committed approximately 100,000 to 300,000 chunks to memory.
Cognitive Science Society
The Cognitive Science Society proposed that links are generated between the player’s recognition of a chess piece’s place and position on the board and abstract information like tactical advantages and board checks within the chunk. When 60 chess positions involving a king and one additional piece were presented to players of varying ability, stronger players had much faster perception times than the weaker ones. Researchers deduced that not only are stronger players faster at recalling pertinent chunk information, they were also much less likely to spend time double-checking their moves, as lesser players did. This was understood as the ability of the stronger players to memorize larger chunks, as well as having higher confidence levels in their ability and decision-making skills.
Blindfold chess is just as it sounds: a chess game where the players cannot see the board. In a study done by Cognitive Science, hundreds of chess masters had their blindfold chess games analyzed, and the findings were that the masters had such strong memory, mental visualization, and mental imagery skills that not actually seeing the board did not greatly affect their playing ability. The power and ability to visualize is hugely important in the game of chess, and for those that have mastered the game, the mind hones those skills to the point where they become based on instinct and memory, rather than visual-spatial representation on the board.
Chess is a game that has persisted through the ages. It has as firm a place in the gaming cultures of today as it did in ancient times. Known as a game of intellect, the game of chess engages crucial psychological processes and skills such as perception, visualization, memory, learning, problem-solving, and strategizing. The psychological functioning that governs success or failure at chess is thought to be similar to those that affect people’s abilities to navigate their way through the day-to-day challenges of life.
The ability to perceive a situation, map it on the mind, and try and navigate a way out of that situation as quickly and positively as possible is a strategy that is employed in the game and in real life. The further ability to easily recall the chess positions and outcomes is akin to our ability to learn from mistakes and successes in life and apply them to present and future situations.